"Debates on the nature of the developmental state must supersede the concept’s origins in the analysis of East Asian Strategies of Industrialization in the 1960s and 1970s, refocusing attention from capital accumulation to the central role of human development in national developmental success. This refocusing entails rethinking the state-society relations in which contemporary developmental states are embedded. Close ties with industrial elites are no longer sufficient and may be counter-productive. Diversely structured networks that create effective ties to a broad cross-section of civil society, and especially with disprivileged groups, become essential. This chapter engages these theoretical debates by bringing three pairs of cross-national comparative analyses to bear on these theoretical debates: Korea and Taiwan, South Africa and Brazil, and India and China."